Jawaharlal Nehru "the founder of modern India
Jawaharlal Nehru "the founder of modern India"
"Success is often the ally of those who act boldly, and seldom of those who are hesitant and fearful of situations and their consequences."
Jawaharlal Nehru was born in 1889, in Allahabad, for an affluent family, as his father was a lawyer who belonged to the Barhman varna or social class. He studied at Harrow School which is an independent school for boys in the town of Harrow on Capitol Hill. He then studied law at Trinity College at the University of Cambridge.
After completing his degree, Nehru returned back to India then traveled through Europe, which opened his mind and added to his experience, to allow him to join the Allahabad High Court. He then showed an interest in national politics which replaced his profession as a lawyer. He was a committed nationalist since his youth, and joined the national movement alongside its leader at the time, Mahatma Gandhi, who considered him his right hand, which caused him to be sent to prison for several times. during the uprisings of 1910, Nehru became a rising figure in Indian politics.
During the 1920s, he became a prominent leader of the left wing factions of the Indian National Congress Party, and President of the Senate after the tacit consent of his mentor, Mahatma Gandhi. When he became president of the Senate in 1929, he called for complete independence from British rule and urged the Senate to shift to the left.
Through the Senate, Nehru dominated Indian politics in the 1930s during the country's drive towards independence. His idea of a secular nation-state was ostensibly approved after the Senate swept the Indian provincial elections in 1937, and the government was formed in many provinces.
Muhammad Ali, a former member of the Senate, became an oppositionist leading the Islamic coalition, as he imposed full control over the Islamic politics in India. The negotiations to devide power between the Senate and the Islamic coalition failed, which opend the way for the bloody division of India in 1947. Nehru opposed the participation of India in World War II, and instigating the masses, was sent to prison for three years. Following this war, Britain was forced to recognise the independence of India.
Elected by the Senate, Nehru became the first Prime Minister of the independent India. during his presidency, Nehru applied himself to fulfill the vision he had for India. In 1950, he made the Indian constitution, then initiated a social, political, and economic reform programme. He directed the transition of India from a colony to a republic, without excluding groups and multi-party system. As for foreign policy, he took a leadership role in the Non-Aligned Movement, highlighting India as the dominant region in South Asia.
His policy was based on the principle of socialism, secularization of the state and the achievement of equality between the various constituent classes of Indian society. He was a prominent advocate of the values of justice and peace in the world, as he was known for his effective role, along side Gamal Abdel Nasser and Tito, in leading the Non-Aligned Movement. Moreover, he played a role in supporting peoples and liberation forces in the world against the forces of oppression and colonialism since the Bandung Conference in 1955, which represented the first nucleus of this movement. This movement imposed its presence and respect, and succeeded to a large extent in isolating the colonial powers and exposing their plans.
Nehru wrote several books in English concerning the discovery of India, glimpses of world history, his autobiography, and a book on freedom (1936).
In 1955, Jawaharlal Nehru conferred the Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian honor in the Republic of India. President Rajendra Prasad awarded him the rank of honor without taking the advice of the Prime Minister as a standard constitutional procedure.
Nehru was subjected to four assassination attempts by unknown persons. The first attempt was during the partition of India in 1947, while he was visiting the Northwest Territory in a car. The second was when a rickshaw driver stabbed him in 1955, and the third was in Bombay (present-day Maharashtra) in 1956. The fourth was a failed bombing attempt in Maharashtra in 1961. Despite the threats to his life, Nehru disapproved of having too much protection around him.
during 1963, Leader Nehru's health deteriorated, as he spent months recovering in Kashmir. He died on May 27, 1964, at the age of 74.