Khedive Mohamed Tawfik
The eldest son of Khedive Ismail, his mother is Shafak Nur Hanim, one of the Palace governors.
He was born on April 20, 1852 AD, in Cairo, and he grew up there. When he was nine years old, his father enrolled him in the Menial School, and then the Preparatory School.
He held many positions, such as the presidency of the Special Council (the Council of Ministers), the chief of the interior and the chief of works.
He formed his first ministry during the reign of his father (March 10, 1879 - April 7, 1879), and it included two European ministers. It did not last long, as the dispute raged between it and the representatives Consultative Council, and it was targeted by an opposition movement that ended in its downfall and the formation of the first ministry of Muhammad Sharif.
When Khedive Tawfik assumed power following his father, Sharif's first cabinet resigned (April 7 - July 5 1879), but the Khedive asked him to form a new one, so he composed it on July 5, 1879, but stipulated that the Khedive govern his ministry under a new constitution. When Sharif submitted the features of the new constitution, including the existence of a House of Representatives, which would have an oversight over the administration of the state, The Khedive refused that, which led to the resignation of Sharif Pasha, the chief of his second cabinet (August 18, 1879 - September 21, 1879), which did not last long due to European intervention.
He was the first of Royal family members to give up his lands, to pay the debt required of the government.
He had been interested in spreading education since he was crown prince, so he established the Qubba School at his own expense. When he assumed power, he issued a decree on May 27, 1880, forming a committee to research the organization of education and its affairs. The committee proposed the establishment of a high school for teachers to graduate teachers. It also suggested increasing the number of schools, thus establishing many primary, secondary and higher education institutes. The Higher School for Teachers was opened during his reign, and an evening school for education was established. The government established the Higher Council for Knowledge on March 28, 1881.
During his reign, the Laws Consultative Council, the General Assembly, and the district councils were established in 1883.
He issued the list of civil workers that guarantees them their pension rights, and attached it to the royal/nonmilitary and military pension lists.
He abolished forced labor, and ordered the reform of mosques and charitable endowments.
He borrowed one million pounds to repair the Charitable Arches. And he began to excavate the compromise winds in early 1887, and the work was finished in 1888. The foundation of the bridge of the winds mouth was laid in 1887, and work was completed in 1890. The mouth of the winds of the lake was modified to increase its openings, and the mouth of the winds of the lake was added to its buildings two openings. A regulation was issued to regulate irrigation and expand its scope.
During his rule, many foreign companies and banks were established, including the Anglo-Agypsian Bank, and the Italian Discount and Spare Bank (1887). Among the companies is the American Joint Stock Company, which was formed in 1881 to connect the telephone between Cairo and Alexandria. This company was transformed into the Eastern Telephone Company in 1882 and its activity expanded after that. Among the companies that have consolidated their business in Egypt are the Cairo Tram Company, Al Nour Company, the Alexandria Tram Company, the Delta Railway, and the Nile Ships Company. Among the land companies that were formed: the Lands and Mortgages Company in Egypt 1880, the Egyptian Land Bank in 1880, and Abu Qir Company 1887 to fill the lands of Abu Qir Lake and prepare them for agriculture, and also some other companies.
He passed away on January 7, 1892.