Sultan Hussein Kamel

Sultan Hussein Kamel

Sultan Hussein Kamel

The second son of Khedive Ismail, and the first to bear the title of Sultan, following the demise of the Ottoman sovereignty over Egypt in 1914.

He was born on November 21, 1853 in Cairo.

When he was eight years old, his father entered him at the school he had established in the Menial Palace for his sons and the sons of Egyptian notables.

He learned reading, writing and the principles of some sciences. He continued to study until the princely schools were opened, and he transferred to it, then moved to the school established by his father in the castle, and then Palace School No. 3.) in Alexandria.

He traveled to Paris in 1868, and resided at the court of Napoleon III, Emperor of France, and a friend of his father. General Fleury, an equestrian teacher for Emperor Napoleon III, took over his upbringing, and he was accompanied by Prince Hussein in France, Turkish and Arab professors.

He returned to Egypt in 1869, during the opening of the Suez Canal, and was a companion (interpreter) to Empress Eugenie, the consort of Napoleon III in Upper Egypt.

After traveling to Paris to complete his studies there, he was sent on a diplomatic mission to Victor Emmanuel, King of Italy, and returned to Egypt in 1870 after the outbreak of war between France and Germany.

He assumed the position of inspector general of the provinces of Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt in 1872. He took the city of Tanta as the headquarters of his office. He personally supervised the conduct of the governors of the regions, the conditions of peasants and farmers, until the title of “Abu al-Falah” or “Prince of Janaina.”

He was appointed superintendent of three offices: Al Maaref, Endowments, and Public Works, while his father, Khedive Ismail, took power, from (August 26, 1872 to August 14, 1873), the position of overseer of knowledge and endowments, and retained the position of overseer of public works until 1875.

 

   He was transferred to the directorate of the interior, and he retained the position of superintendent of works, and he took over the directorate of jihad, in addition to the position of superintendent of works.

 

On May 2, 1875, he took over the Navy's eyeglasses, as well as my war and works glasses. During his reign, Egypt expanded south to the equator, and seized the country of Harar.

 He took over the Finance Supervisor on November 10, 1876, and left the Finance and Jihad Finance Supervisors, and in 1877 he took over the Jihadi Supervisors while remaining as the Finance Supervisor.

Khedive Tawfik assigned him to receive both King Edward VII, the Crown Prince of Britain at the time, who came to Egypt in 1889, and Tsar Nicholas II, who came to Egypt in 1890 (he was Crown Prince of Russia at the time).

He assumed the presidency of the Laws Consultative Council and the General Assembly (1909-1910). During his reign, the sessions of the Laws Shura Council became public, and before that they were secret, not attended by the public or the press, and the overseers had the right to attend the sessions of the Laws Shura Council and consult it on education regulations and laws. The Council also won the right to interrogate the principals, and these developments resulted in the issuance of the District Councils Law in 1909.

He assumed the throne of Egypt on December 19, 1914, after Khedive Abbas Helmy II - his nephew - was deposed following the declaration of British protection over Egypt, as Britain was aware of Abbas Helmy's sympathy with the Ottoman Empire, and his support for the nationalists in Egypt.

He built the Ibrahimiya Canal, which lasted for six years, and watered the districts of Assiut, Minya and Beni Suef.

He established the Ismailia Canal, which provided irrigation for the cities of Ismailia and Port Said, and life was revived in them.

 

He saved the country from the tyranny of the Nile flood (1874-1875), by taking all precautions to secure and strengthen bridges, especially around the city of Cairo, which was prone to drowning.

He established the railway that linked Helwan to the capital on January 8, 1877.

He decided to disburse excellence rewards to outstanding students, which led to an increase in scientific competition among students, and an increase in the level of the educational process, but it stopped after that.

The inauguration of the Sunni School for Girls in Sioufiya in 1873, which is the oldest school for girls, and the establishment of another school for girls in Qirbia, Cairo, in 1874.

The first Egyptian ruler to have coins struck in his name, after the demise of the Ottoman sovereignty.

He established military children's schools in Cairo and Alexandria.

He managed his father's vast estates, and his own lands, and rented the lands of the Domain to expand his business, and conduct his agricultural experiments.

He was a member of the Spinning and Weaving Company in 1896 in Alexandria, and one of its shareholders.

He established the Egyptian Agricultural and Industrial Company in 1898, and assumed its presidency, as well as the Delta Railway Company in Lower Egypt, the Belgian Company, and other companies.

He headed the Islamic Charitable Association in Cairo (1905-1914), and through the association provided aid to the poor, and sought to spread education through this association, where in 1906 it owned eight schools in Egypt, Alexandria, Tanta, Assiut, Mahalla al-Kubra and Port Said. He is credited with introducing secondary education and industrial education in these schools.

He established an industrial school in Damanhour in 1907, through the donations of the parents, where the prince inaugurated this donation in the amount of 1500 pounds. He also endowed (76) acres of his fields in Jabaris in favor of the establishment of the school, and then donations from the people continued after that.

He assumed the presidency of the Cairo Ambulance Association, which was established in 1907, and he also assumed the honorary presidency of the Egyptian Children's Care Association, which was founded in 1908.

The first to establish agricultural exhibitions in Egypt, where the first exhibition of flowers was held in Azbakeya Garden in Cairo, and Toson Garden in Alexandria in 1896, then expanded its scope to include agricultural crops, and added to it (livestock, animals, and birds) in an exhibition in 1898, and it was based in Zamalek, It became a public agricultural exhibition, and the prince was able to build his own place in the surrounding lands on the island. Therefore, the 1900 exhibition was more diversified. It included agricultural crops of all kinds, livestock, and various agricultural machinery. National products related to agriculture were added to it, so it became an agricultural and industrial exhibition.

The year 1902 witnessed the establishment of an exhibition in Tanta and another in Beni Suef, and in the same year a special section was established in the exhibition hall in Cairo to display Egyptian cotton products. Egyptian artifacts at the Cairo Fair since 1906.

Prince Hussein added to the exhibition in 1907 gold, silver and copper manufactures, as well as the manufacture of fabrics and furniture. The 1908 exhibition, which was formed under the chairmanship of the Emir, bore the name of the Agricultural and Industrial Exhibition. The scope of the exhibition expanded in 1909, to include wood and leather products, and the scope of its agricultural and industrial exhibits expanded in 1912.

The Agricultural Society was established during his reign in 1898, from which the idea of ​​the Ministry of Agriculture was later born, which was established in 1913 - and Prince Hussein Kamel (1898-1915) assumed its presidency. It aimed to provide farmers with the seeds and fertilizers they needed, and to guide them to the correct cultivation methods.

Prince Hussein Kamel adopted the case to publish agricultural unions and agricultural cooperation funds.

He passed away on October 9, 1917.